Some analysts continue to insist that the "traditional" age range of gang members is 8 to 21 or 22 years, with only minor exceptions (Miller , ). Based on a small data sample (N=12l), Miller (), for example, found no gang offenders or victims in Chicago who were 23 years of age or older. However, based on. This gang member is probably the oldest in the posse, likely has the smallest criminal record, and they often have the power to direct the gang's activity, whether they are involved or not. In many jurisdictions, this person is likely a prison gang member calling the shots from within the prison system or is on parole. Often, they. The survey results suggest that adult gang members are more prevalent in cities that have a long history of gang problems. As Klein () points out, "Older members seem more common in cities that have developed gang traditions over a decade or more." He also observed that newer gang cities do not have many gang.